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Scientific Publications

The research conducted by the F-CUBED project will produce a number peer-reviewed scientific publications that will be stored in the F-CUBED Community on the Zenodo online repository.

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On this page, you can find a list of F-CUBED´s scientific papers and a link to the full publication on Zenodo.

Hydrothermal treatment can convert paper mill biological sludge waste into more energy-dense hydrochar, which can achieve energy savings and fossil CO2 emissions reduction when used for metallurgical applications. This study assesses the basic, combustion and safety performance of bio-sludge hydrochar to evaluate its feasibility of use in blast furnace injection processes.


Liang W, Nanou P, Wray H, Zhang J, Lundstrom I, Lundqvist S, Wang C. Feasibility Study of Bio-Sludge Hydrochar as Blast Furnace Injectant. Sustainability. 2022; 14(9):5510.

This study demonstrates the benefits of hydrothermal carbonization for the dewatering of biological paper sludge without the use of dewatering aids such as fiber sludge or polyelectrolytes. The results also demonstrate the successful adaptation of a lab-scale batch process to a pilot-scale continuous flow process for hydrothermal carbonization of industrial wastewater sludge.


Zijlstra DS, Cobussen-Pool E, Slort DJ, Visser M, Nanou P, Pels JR, Wray HE. Development of a Continuous Hydrothermal Treatment Process for Efficient Dewatering of Industrial Wastewater Sludge. Processes. 2022; 10(12):2702.


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